The following scales are routinely used in BDD. Please send us details of any further validated scales used for BDD.
Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for BDD (BDD-YBOCS)
The BDD-YBOCS is an observer rated scale to assess the severity of BDD symptoms. It was developed by Katherine Phillips and colleagues and consists of 12 items and the range is from 0 to 48. It is widely used as an outcome measure in controlled trials.
Reference: Phillips, K. A., Hollander, E., Rasmussen, S. A., Aronowitz, B. R., DeCaria, C., & Goodman, W. K. (1997). A severity rating scale for body dysmorphic disorder: development, reliability, and validity of a modified version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 33(1), 17-22.
The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS)
The BABS is an observer rated scale designed to measure the strength of conviction in beliefs (for example about “being as ugly as the Elephant Man”).
Reference: Eisen, J. L., Phillips, K. A., Baer, L., Beer, D. A., Atala, K. D., & Rasmussen, S. A. (1998). The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale: reliability and validity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(1), 102-108.
The Cosmetic Procedure Screening Scale (COPS)
The COPS is a self-report scale designed to screen for symptoms of BDD in cosmetic settings. The score is achieved by summing the 9 items. Item numbers 2, 3, and 5 are reverse scored. Scores of 40 or above are strongly suggestive of a diagnosis of BDD. The scale may also be repeated during treatment and used as a measure of outcome. It is available to complete on this website. It is free to use but should be cited in any publication.
Reference: Veale, D, Ellison, N, Werner, T, Dodhia, R, Serfaty, M & Clarke, A. (2012) Development of a cosmetic procedure screening questionnaire (COPS) for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Journal of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 65 (4), 530-532.
The Appearance Anxiety Inventory (AAI)
The AAI is a self-report scale designed to be used weekly during therapy to help decide which processes and behaviours to target during therapy. The questionnaire has 10 items and the range is 0 to 40. It is free to use but should be cited in any publication. It is available to complete on this website.
BDD Dimensional Scale (BDD-D)
The BDD-D is a self-report scale can be used as an outcome measure during therapy. It has just 5 items and the range is 0 to 20. It is modelled on the Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory but has not yet been validated in BDD. There are 5 items with a range of 0- 20. We are not sure if the scale is that sensitive to change during treatment but this needs to be formally evaluated.
Reference: LeBeau R, Mischel, E, Simpson, H, Mataix-Cols, D, Phillips, K, Stein, D, Craske, M (2013) Preliminary assessment of obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder scales for DSM-5. Journal Of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders 2:114-118
The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire (BIDQ)
The BIDQ is a self-report scale developed by Professor Tom Cash derived from Katherine Phillips BDD Questionnaire. It contains seven items and is used for screening for BDD. It is available for a nominal fee or may be used for free in research (write to Professor Cash).
Cash, T. F., Phillips, K. A., Santos, M. T., & Hrabosky, J. I. (2004). Measuring “negative body image”: Validation of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in a non-clinical population. Body Image, 1(4), 363-372.
The Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI)
The BIQLI was developed by Professor Tom Cash. It measures the quality of life related to body image and has been validated in BDD. It is available for a nominal fee or for free if used in research (write to Professor Cash) and is available from his website.
Cash, T.F., & Fleming, E.C. (2002). The impact of body-image experiences: Development of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31, 455-460.
Hrabosky, J.I, Cash, T. F, Veale, D, Neziroglu, F, Soll, E.A, Garner, D. M, Strachan-Kinser, M, Bakke, B, Clauss, L.J & Phillips, K.A (2009) Multidimensional body image comparisons of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder and clinical controls: A multisite study. Body Image, 6 (3), 155-163.
The Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ)
The DCQ is a self-report questionnaire, which can be used to screen for BDD. A score of 9 is used as a cut off for BDD.
Reference: Mancuso SG, Knoesen NP, Castle DJ. The Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire: A screening measure for body dysmorphic disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2010 Jun;44(6):535-42. doi: 10.3109/00048671003596055.